PCS Preliminary Exam
In UPPCS, at the Preliminary Examination stage, there will be two objective-type question papers common for all the candidates. This examination is meant to serve as a screening test only and the marks obtained by the successful candidates (who are declared qualified for admission to the Main Examination) will not be counted for determining their final order of merit.


Marks : 200, Duration : 2 hours

• Current events of national and international importance
• History of India and Indian National Movement
• Indian and World Geography‐Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
• Indian Polity and Governance‐Constitution, Political System, Panchayati Raj, Public Policy, Rights Issues, etc.
• Economic and Social Development‐Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics, Social Sector Initiatives, etc.
• General issues on Environmental ecology, Bio‐diversity and Climate Change ‐ that do not require subject specialization
• General Science


Marks : 200, Duration : 2 hours

• Comprehension
• Interpersonal skills including communication skills;
• Logical reasoning and analytical ability
• Decision making and problem solving
• General mental ability
• Elementary Mathematics upto Class X level – Arithmetic, Algebra, Geometry and Statistics.
• General English (Class X level).
• General Hind (Class X level)

Elementary Mathematics (Up to Class X Level)
1. Arithmetic
2. Algebra
3. Geometry

General English up to Class X Level
(1) Comprehension
(2) Active Voice and Passive Voice.
(3) Parts of Speech.
(4) Transformation of Sentences.
(5) Direct and Indirect Speech.
(6) Punctuation and Spellings.
(7) Words Meanings.
(8) Vocabulary & usage.
(9) Idioms and Phrases.
(10) Fill in the Blanks


(1) हिन्दी वर्णमाला ,विराम चिन्ह

(2) शब्द रचना ,वाक्य रचना ,अर्थ

(3) शब्द – रूप

(4) संधि, समास

(5) क्रियाये

(6) अनेकार्थी शब्द

(7) विलोम शब्द

(8) पर्यायवाची शब्द

(9) मुहावरे एवं लोकोक्तियाँ

(10) तत्सम एवं तद्भव ,देशज ,विदेशी (शब्द भंडार )

(11) वर्तनी

(12) अर्थबोध

(13) हिन्दी भाषा के प्रयोग प्रयोग में होने होने वाली अशुद्धियों

(14) उ 0 प्र 0 की मुख़्य बोलिया


(a) All the sections in both the question papers will be set both in Hindi and English mediums. The questions will be of multiple choices, objective type

(b) all the questions both papers had NO negative marking.

PCS Main Exam
Syllabus of the papers included in the scheme of UPPCS – Upper Subordinate Services (Main) Examination are given as follows: ‐

General Hindi: 150 Marks

1- दिए हुए गघ खण्ड का अवबेध एवं प्रश्नोत्तर
2- संक्षेपण
3- सरकार एवं अर्धसरकारी पत्र लेखन ,तार लेखन ,कार्यालय आदेश ,अधिसूचना ,परिपत्र
4- शब्द ज्ञान एवं प्रयोग
(a) उपसर्ग एवं प्रत्यय प्रयोग
(b) विलोम शब्द
(c) वाक्यांश के लिए एक शब्द
(d) वर्तनी एवं वाक्य शुधि
5- लोकोकित्त एवं मुहावरे

Essay: 150 Marks

There will be three sections in the question paper of Essay. Candidates will have to select one topic from each section and they are required to write essay in 700 words on each topic. In the three sections, topics of essay will be based on following sphere :
Section A : (1) Literature and Culture (2) Social sphere (3) Political sphere
Section B : (1) Science, Environment and Technology. (2) Economic Sphere (3) Agriculture, Industry and Trade.
Section C : (1) National and International Events. (2) Nature Calamities, Land slide, Earthquake, Deluge, Drought etc. (3) National Development programmes and projects.

General Studies Paper I : 200 Marks

1. History of India-Ancient, Mediaeval, Modern
2. Indian National Movement and Indian Culture
3. Population, Environment and Urbanization in Indian Context
4. World Geography of India and its natural resources.
5. Current events of national and international importance
6. Indian Agriculture, Trade and Commerce
7. Specific knowledge of U.P. regarding education, culture Agriculture, Trade Commerce, The methods of living and Social Customs.
History of India and Indian Culture will cover the broad history of the country from about the middle of the nineteenth century and would also include questions on Gandhi, Tagore and Nehru. The part on current events of national and international importance will include questions also on sports and games.

General Studies Paper II: 200 Marks

1. Indian Polity
2. Indian Economy
3. General Science (Role of Science and technology in the development of India including science in everyday life)
4. General Mental ability
5. Statistical Analysis, Graphic and Diagrams.
The part relating to the Indian polity will include questions on the political system in India and Indian constitution. The Indian economy will cover broad features of economic policy in India. The part relating to role and impact of science and technology in the development of India, questions will be asked to test the candidates awareness in this field Emphasis will be on the applied aspects. The part relating to statistical analysis, graphs and diagrams will include exercise to test the candidates ability to draw common sense conclusions from information presented ion statistical graphical or diagrammatical form and to point out deficiencies limitation or inconsistencies there in.

PAPER-V & VI (200 marks each)
1st Optional Subject Paper I & II

PAPER-VII & PAPER VIII (200 Marks each)
2nd Optional Subject Papers I & II

History (Optional)




• Sources and approaches study of early Indian History.
• Early pastoral and agricultural communities. The archaeological evidence.
• The Indus Civilization: its origins, nature and decline.
• Patterns of settlement, economy, social organization and religion in India (c. 2000 to 500 B.C.): archaeological perspectives.
• Evolutions of North Indian society and culture: evidence of Vedic Texts (Samhitas of Sutras).
• Teachings of Mahavira And Buddha. Contemporary Society. Early phase of state formation and urbanization.
• Rise of Magadha: the Mauryan Empire. Ashoka’s inscriptions; his dharma. Nature of the Mauryan State.

8.9.Post-Mauryan period in Northern and Peninsular India: Political and Administrative History. Social,

Economy, Culture and religion. Tamilaham and its Society: and Sangam Texts.

10.11. India changes in the Gupta and post- Gupta period (to c. 750): political history of northern and

peninsular India; Samanta System and changes in political structure; economy; Social Structure;

culture; religion.

12. Themes in early Indian cultural history; languages and texts; major stages in the evolution of art and

architecture; major philosophical thinkers and schools; ideas in science and mathematics.


India, 750-1200 : Polity Society and economy, Major dynasties and political Structures In North India. Agrarian structures “Indian Feudalism”. Rise of Rajputs. The Imperial Cholas and their contemporaries in Peninsular India. Village communities in the South. Conditions for women. Commerce mercantile groups and guilds; town. Problem of coinage. Arabs conquest of Sind; the Ghanavide Empire.
India, 750-1200; Culture, Literature, Kalhana, historian. Styles of temple architecture; sculpture. Religious thought and institution Sankaracharya’s vedanta. Ramanuja. Growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India. Sufism. Indian. Science, Alberuni and his study of Indian science and civilization.
The 13th century: The Ghorian invasions. Factors behind Gorian success. Economic, Social and cultural consequences, Foundation of the Suitanate. The “slave” Dyansty, lltutmish: Balban. “The Khaliji Revolution” Early Sultanate architecture.
The 14th century : Alauddin Khaliji’s conquests, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad Tuglaq’s major “project”s Flruz Tughluq’s concessions and public works. Decline of the Sultanate. Foregin Contacts: Ibn Battuta.
• Economy society and culture and the 13th and 14th Centuries. Cast and slavery under Sultanate. Technological Changes. Sultanate architecture. Persion literature. Amir Khushrau, Historiography, ziya Barani. evolution of composite culture. Sufism in North India. Lingayats. Bhakti Schools in the south.
The 15th and early 16th Century (Political History). Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat, Malwa, Bahmanids. The Vijayanagra Empire. Lodis. Mughal Empire, First Phase: Babur, Humayan. The sure Empire: Sher Shah’s administration. The Protuguese colonial enterprise.
• The 15th and early 16th Century (society, economy and culture). Regional cultures and liteatures. Provincial architectural styles. Society, Culture, Literature and the arts in Vijayanagra Empire. Monotheistic movements: Kabir and Guru Nanak Bhakti Movements: Chaitanya, Sufism in its Pantheistic phase.
Akbar : His conquests and consolidation of empire. Establishment of Jagir and Mansab systems. His Rajput Policy. Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Suth-i-kul and religious policy. Abdul Fazl, thinker and historian. Court patronage of art and thchnology.
Mughal empire in the 17th Century. Manjor policies (administrative and religious) of Jahangir, Shajahan and Aurangzeb. The Empire and the Zamindars. Nature of the Mughal state. Late 17 th Century crisis: Revolts. The Ahon kingdom, Shivaji and the early maratha Kingdom.
Economy and Society, 16th and 17 th Centuries. Population. Agricultural and craft production. Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies-a “trade revolution”. Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems. Conditions of peasants, Famines. Condition of Women.
Culture during Mughal Empire. Persian literature (including historical works). Hindi and religious literatures. Mughal architecture. Mughal painting. Provincial schools of architecture and painting. Classical music. Science and technology Sawai Jai Sing, astronomer. Mystic electism: Dara Shikoh, Vaishnav Bhakti, Maharastra Dharma. Evolution of the Sikh community (Khalsa).
First half of 18th Century. Factors behind decline of the Mughal Empire. The regional principalities (Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh) Rise of Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas. The Maratha fiscal and financial system. Emergency of Afghan Power. Panipat, 1761. Internal weakness. Political cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.



Establishment of British rule In India : Factors behind British success against Indian powers-Mysore, Maratha confederacy and the Punjab as major powers in resistance; Policy of subsidiary Alliance and Doctrine of Lapse.
Colonial Economy : Tributes System. Drain of wealth and “deindustrialisation’’. Fiscal pressures and revenue settlements (Zamindari, Ryotwari and Mahalwari settlements), Structure of the British Raj up to 1857; (including the Acts of 1773 and 1784 and administrative organisation).
Resistance to colonial rule: Early uprisings; Causes, nature and inpact of the Revolt of 1857 Reorganisation of the Raj, 1858 and after.
Socio- cultural impact of colonial rule : Official social reform measures (1828-1857); Orientalist-Anglicist Controversy; coming of English education and the press. Christian missionary activities; Bengal Renaissance; Social and religious reform movements in Bengal and other areas: Women as focus of social reform.
Economy 1858-1914 : Railway: Commercialization of Indian agriculture. Growth of landless labourers; and rural indebtedness; Femines; India as market for British Industry; constoms removal, exchange and countervailing excise; Limited grow the of modern industry.
Early Indian nationalism : Social background; Formation of national associations Peasent and tribal uprising during the early nationalist era; Foundation of the Indian National Congress. The moderate phase of the congress; Growth of Extremism; The Indian council Act of 1909; Home Rule Movement, the Government of India Act of 1919.
Inter-War economy of India : Industries and problem of Protection; Agricultural distress. The Great Depression; Ottawa agreements and Discriminatory Protection; the growth of trade unions; The Kisan Movement; The economic programme of the Congress Karachi Resolution, 1931.
Nationalism under Gandhi’s leadership: Gandhi’s career though and methods of mass mobilization, Rowlatt Satyagraha, Khailafat Non Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience Movement, 1940 Satyagraha and Quit India movement, State people’s Movement.
Other stands of the National Movement: (a) Revolutionary movements since 1905; (b) Constitutional politics; Swarajists, Liberals, Responsive Co-operation; (c) Ideas of Jawahalal Nehru, (d) The Left (Socialists and Communists); (e) Subhash Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army. (f) Communal strands: Muslim League and Hindu Mahasabha; (g) Women and National Movement.
Literary and cultural movement: Tagore. Premchand, Subramanayam Bharti, Iqbal as examples only; New trends in art ; Film Industry, Writers Organisations and. Theater Association.
Towards freedom: The Act of 1935; Congress Ministries, 1937-1939, The Pakistan movement Post-1945 upsurge (Rim Mutiny, Telangana uprising etc.); Constitutional negotiations and the Transfer of power, 15 August 1947.
First phase of Independence (1947- 64) Facing the consequences of partition; Gandhiji’s murder, economic dislocaton; Integration of State; The democratic constitution, 1950; Agrarian reforms. Building and Industrial Welfare state; planning and industrialisation; Foregin Policy of Non-alignment: Relations with neighbours.


Enlightenment and Modern Ideas – 1. Renaissance Background. 2. Mojor ideas of Enlightenment: Kant, Rousseau. 3. Spread of Enlightenment outside Europe. 4. Rise of Socialist ideas (to marx).
• origins of Modern Politics – 1. European States System. 2. Americal Revolution and the Constitution. 3. Frence revoluton and after math, 1789-1815. 4. British Democratic Politics. 1815-1850, Parliamentry Reformers: Free Trades Charitists.
Industrialization : 1. English Industrial Revolution: Causes and Impect on Society. 2. Industrialization in other countries: USA, Germany, Russia, Japan. 3. Socialist industrialization: Soviet and Chiness.
Nation-State System - 1 Rise of Nationalism in 19th Century 2. Nationalsm: State-building in Germany and ltaly. 3. Disintegration of Empires though the emergency of nationalities.
Imperialism and Colonialism - 1. Colonial System (Exploitation of New world. Tran-atlantic Slave Trade, Tribute from Asian Conquests. 2. Types of Empire: of settlement and non-settlement: Lain America, South Africa, Indonesia, Australia. 3. Imperialism and Free Trade. The New imperialism.
Revolutions and Counter- Revolution - 1. 19th Century European revolutions. 2. The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921. 3. Fascist Counter-Revolution, ltaly and Germany. 4. The Chinese Revolution of 1949.
World Wars – 1. 1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars: Societal Implications. 2. World war- 1: Cause and Consequences. 3. World War-Il : Political consequence.
Cold War - 1 Emergence of two Blocs. 2. Intergration of west Europe and Us Stragegy; Communist East Europe. 3. Emergenc of Third World and Non-Alignment. 4. UN and Dispute Resolution.
Colonial Liberation - 1. Latin America- Bolivar. 2. Arab World – Egypt. 3. Africa- Apartheid of Democracy. 4. South-East Asia-Vietnam.
Decolonization and underdevelopment - Decoonizaton: Break up colonical empires: British, Frenceh, Dutch. 2. Foctors Constraining Development: Latin America, Africa.
Unification of Europe- 1. Post War foundations: NATO and European Community. 2. Consolidation and expansion of European Community European Union.
Soviet Disintegration and the Unipolar World – 1. Factors in the collapes of soviet communism and the Soviet Union. 1985-1991. 2. Political Changes in East Europe 1989-1992. 3. End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the world. 4. Globalizaton.

GEOGRAPHY (Optional)



Section – A

Physical Geography)

Geomorphology : Origin and structure of the earth, Earth movements Plate tectomics and Mountain Building; Isostasy; Volcanism; Weathering and Erosion; Cycle of Erosion, Evolution of landforms; fluvial, glacial, acolion, marine and Karst Rejuvenation and Polycyclic Land form features.
Climatology : Composition and structure of atmosphere, Insolation and Heat Budget; Atmospheric pressure and winds, Moisture and Precipitation; Airmasses and Fronts; Cyclone; Origin; Movements and associated weather, Classification of world climates; Koopen and Thomthwaite.
Oceanography : Configuration of Ocean floor, Salinity Ocean Currents, Tides; Ocean deposits and coral reefs.
Soil and Vegetation : Soils -geneisis; classification and world distribution, Soil Vegetation Symbiosis: Biotic Communities and Succession.
Ecosystem : Concept of Ecosystem, structure and functioning of Ecosystem. Types of Ecosystem, Major Biomes, Man’s impact on the ecosystem and global ecological issues.

Section – A

(Human Geography)

Evolution of Geography Thought : Contributions of German, French, British, Soviet and Indian Geographers: Changing Paradigms of Man Environment Relationship impact of Positivism and Quantitative revolution; models and systems in geography, Recent trends in geographic thought with special reference to radical, behavioural phenomenological and ecological paradigms.
Human Geography : Human habitat in major natural regions : Emergence of Man and Races of Mankind; Cultural evolution and stages; Major cultural realsm. Growth and Distribution of population; International migration population. Demorgraphic Transition and contemporary population problems.
Settlement Geography : Concept of Settlement Geography; Rural settlement; Nature; Origin, Types and pattern, concept of Urban settlement. Patterns, Processes and consequences of Urbanisation; Central place theory; classification of town; Hierarchy of urban centres. Morphology of Town; Rural Urban nexus; Uniand and urban finges.
Economic Geography : Fundamental concepts. Concepts of Resources; Classification, Conservation and Management Nature and Types of Agriculture; Agricultural land use location theories; World agricultural regions; Major crops: Mineral and Power Resources Occurrence, Reserve, utilization and production patterns, World Energy crisis and search for alternatives. Industries- Theories of Industrial location, Major industrial regions; Major Industries- Iron & Steel, Paper, Textiles, Petro-Chemicals, Automobiles, Ship building; their location patterns. International Trade; Trade Blocks, Trade routes. Ports and global trace centres. World Economic Development Patterns. Concepts of and approaches to Sustainable Development.
Political Geography : Concept of Nation and state; Frontiers, Boundaries and Buffer zones; Concepts of Heartland and Rimland Federalism, Contemporary world geopolitical issue.



Geography of India

Physical Features : Geological systems and structure : Relief and drainage, soils and natural vegetation; soil degradation and deforestation. Origin and mechanism of Indian Monsson; Climatic regionalisation; Physiographic regionalisation
Human Feature : Distribution and growth of population; structural characteristics of population-temporal-regional variations. Regional rural settlements patterns and village morphaology. Urban Settlement; Classification of Indian Cities – location, functional, hierarchcality regions Urban morophology, urbanisastion and urban policy.
Agriculture : Infrastructure; irrigation, power, fertilizer use, mechanization; Regional characteristics of agricultural Efficiency and Productivity, impact of Green revolution, Agricultural regions with special reference to agroecological conditions. Land reforms and agrarian problems Crop Combinations and agricultural regionalisation. Modernisation of Agriculture and agricultural planning.
Mineral and Power Resources : Locational patterns, Reserves and production trends; Complementarily of minerals. Power resources; Coal petroleum, hydro power, Multipurpose river valley projects; Energy crisis and search for alternatives.
Industries : Industrial Development, Major industries- non & steel. Textiles, paper Cements, Fertilizers Sugar, Petro-chemicals, industrial Complexes and Regions.
Transport and Trade : Networks of railways and roads; Problems and prospects of Civil aviation and water transport; inter-regional commodity flows; International trace, policy and flow patterns. Major ports and trace centres.
Regional Development and Planning : Problems of regional development and spatial planning strategies: Geographic and Planning regions; Planning for metropolitan, tribal, hilly, drought-prone regions and watershed management. Regional disparities in development and policies in five year Plans: Planning for Eco-Development.
Political Economy : Historical Perspective on Unity and diversity. States reorganisation; Regional consciousness and national integration geographical basis on centre-state relations. International boundaries of India and related geo-political issues. India and the geopolitics of Indian Ocean. Indian and the SAARC.




1. Basic Permises : Meaning, Scope and significance of Public Administration: Evolution of Public Administration as discipline, Private and Public Administration: Public Administrations as an art and a science: its role in developed and developing societies; Ecology of administration- Social political, economic and culture New Public Administration.
2. Theories of Organisation : Scientific management (Taylor and tris associates): Bureaucratic theory (Max Weber); Classical theory (Henri Fayol, Luther Gulick and others); Human Relations theory (Ettor Mayo and tris colleagues); Systems approach (Chester Bamard).
3. Principles of Organisation : Hierarch; Unity of Command; Power Authority and Responsibility. Coordination; Span of Control; Supervision Centralisation and Decentralisation, Delegation
4. Administrative Behaviour : Decision Making with special reference to the contribution of Herbert Simon, Theories of Communication, Morale, Motivation (Maslow and Herzberg), and Leadership.
5. Structure of Organisation : Chief Executive and his/her functions Line Staff and auxiliary agencies. Departments Corporation companies, Boards and Commissions, Headquarters and held relationship.
6. Personnel Administration : Bureaucracy and Civil Services, Classification. Recruitment Training. Career development; Performance appraisal, Promotion; Pay structuring; Service conditions; Integrity and Discipline, Employer-employee relations; Retirement benefits; Generalists and Specialists; Neutrality and Anoymity.
7. Financial Administration : Concepts of Budget: Preparation and execution of the Budget; performance Budgeting; Legislative control; Accounts and Audit,
8. Accountability and Control : Concepts of Accountability and Control; Accounts and Audit.
9. Administrative Reforms : Concepts and processes of Administrative Reforms; O & M; Work study and its techniques; Problems and prospects.
10. Administrative Law : Concepts and significance of Administrative Law, Delegation; Meaning, type advantage, limitations and safeguards Administrative Tribunals.
11. Comparative and Development Administration : Meaning, nature and scope of Comparative Public Administration; Contribution of Fred Riggs with special reference to the Prismatic-Sala model; Concepts scope and significance of Development Administration, Political, Economic and socio- cultural context of Development Administration; Concepts of Administrative Development.
12. Public policy : Concept and significance of Policy and policy-making in public Administration Processes of formulation and implementation.


1. Evolution of Indian Administration : Kautilya’s views, Major landmarks of Mughal and British periods.
2. Constitutional Setting : Parliamentary democracy : Federalism; Planning Socialism.
3. Poitical Executive at the Union Level : President, Prime Minister, Council of Ministers; Cabinet Committees.
4. Structure of Control Administration : Secretariat; Cabinet Secretariat Ministries and Departments Boards and Commissions, Field organisations.
5. Central- State Relations : Legislative Administrative Planning and Financial.
6. Public Service : All India Central and State Services. Union and State Public Service Commissions: Training of Civil Servants.
7. Machinary for Planning : Plan formulation at the national level; National Development Council. Planning Commission. Planning Machinery at the State and District levels.
8. Public Sector Undertakings : Forms, Top- level Managment. Control and problems.
9. Control of Public Expenditure : Parliamentary control; Role of the Finance Ministry. Controller and Auditor General.
10. Administration of Law and Order: Role of Central and State agencies in Maintenance of law and Order.
11. State Administration : Governor Chief Minister, Council of Ministers, Chief Secretary: Secretariat; Directorates.
12. District Administration: Role and importance. District Magistate/ Collector, Land Revenue. Law and Order and Developmental functions, District Rural Development Agency, Special Programmes of Rural Areas.
13. Local Administration : Panchayti Raj and Urban Local Government. Features, forms and problems Autonomy of local bodies.
14. Administration of Welfare: Administration for the welfare of weaker sections with particular reference to Scheduled Castes. Scheduled Tribes; Programmes for the welfare of Women.
15. Issue Areas in Indian Administration. Relationship between political and permanent executives. Generalists and specialists in Administration Integrity in Administration . People’s Participation in Administration, Redressal of Citizen’s Grievances; Lok Pal and Lok Ayuktas; Administrative Reforms in India.

SOCIAL WORK (Optional)

Social Work

PAPER – I (Social Work : Philosophy and Methods)


Social Work : Meaning, Objectives, Scope, Assumptions & Values; History of Social work in U.K. U.S.A. and India, philosophy of Social Work. Democratic (Equality, Justice Liberty & Fraternity) and Humanitarian (Human Rights) Matrix. Social works as a profession.

Methods of Social Work

Social Case work : Meaning, Scope Principles, Processes (Psychosocial study, Assessments, treatment-goal formation and techniques), Evaluation, Follow-up and Rehabilitation. Social Groups work ; Meaning, Objective, Principles, Skills, Processes (Study, Diagnosis, treatment and evaluation),Programme, Planning and Development, Role of Social group worker, Leadership Development.

Community organization : Meaning, Objective, Principles, Approaches, Role of Community Organization Worker.

Social Welfare Administration : Meaning Scope, Auspices-Private and Public, Principles, Basic Administrative Processes and Practice decision making communication, planning, organisation, budgeting and financial control, reporting.

Social work Research : Meaning objectives, types, scope, scientific method, Selection and formulation of the problem Research Design Sampling, Sources and methods of Data Collection, Processing of Data, analyzing and interpretation, Report writing. Social Action : Meaning, Scope, approaches (Sarvodays, Antyodaya etc.) and Strategies.

Paper – II

Social Problems and Fields of Social work in India Problem pertaining to Marriage, Family and caste: Dowry- child Marriage, Divorce, Families with working couples, Disorganised Families, Families with Emigrant Heads of the Households, Gender Inequality, Authoritarian Family structure, Major Changes in Caste systems and problem of casteism. Problems Pertaining of Weaker Sections. Problems of Children, Women Aged. Handicapped and Backward Classes (SCs, STs, and other Backward Classes).

Problems of Deviance: Truancy Vagrancy and Juvenile Delinquency, Crime, White Colla Crime, Organized Crime, Collective Violence, Terrorism, Prostitution and Sex Related Crimes. Social Vices: Alcohilism. Drug Addiction, Beggary, Corruption and communalism.

Problems of Social Structure : Poverty, Unemployment, Bonded Labour, Child Labour. Fields of Soclalwork India : Child Development, Development of Youth, Women’s Empowerment, Welfare of aged, Welfare of Physically. Mentally and Social Handicapped, Welfare of backward Classes (Scs, STs and Other Backward Classes) Rural Development Urban Community Development, Medical And Psychiatric Social work, Industrial Social work, Social Security offender Reforms.